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Transdisciplinary Play-Based Intervention, Second Edition (TPBI2)


Transdisciplinary Play-Based Intervention, Second Edition (TPBI2)

Author: Toni W. Linder Ed.D.   With Authors: Tanni L. Anthony Ph.D., Anita C. Bundy Sc.D., OTR, Renee Charlifue-Smith, Susan Dwinal OTR, Jan Christian Hafer, Natasha Hall M.S., CCC-SLP, Forrest Hancock Ph.D.

ISBN: 978-1-55766-872-1
Pages: 672
Copyright: 2008
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Size:  8.5 x 11.0
Stock Number:  68721
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SAVE when you order the complete TBPA/I2 3-volume set, with and without the forms CD.

Create customized play-based interventions that help children make real progress across four domains—sensorimotor, emotional and social, communication, and cognitive. With Transdisciplinary Play-Based Intervention, Second Edition (TPBI2), early childhood professionals will learn how to

  • address global outcomes as well as specific functional processes and behaviors as targets for intervention
  • scaffold intervention with a continuum of approaches, ranging from adult-directed to child-directed
  • support caregivers and children in learning strategies and skills to use throughout the day in natural environments
  • encourage generalization of skills across contexts and environments
  • evaluate child progress

The thoroughly updated second edition of TPBI2 features

  • Strong foundation in DEC and NAEYC guidelines
  • OSEP child outcomes crosswalk
  • Expanded content on critical topics such as literacy, vision, hearing, and daily living skills
  • Explicit links between assessment and intervention

With TPBI2, professionals will find it even easier to conduct effective, practical interventions that really improve young children's outcomes.

Learn more about the TPBA and TPBI system, and discover Toni Linder's play-based curriculum, Read, Play, and Learn!®.

Watch a recorded webcast on the TPBA/I system

See how this product helps strengthen Head Start program quality and school readiness.

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Reviews

Review: The 18th Mental Measurement Yearbook
"Few other assessment and intervention programs can offer as extensive and converging perspectives as does the TPBA2 and TPBI2. The TPBA2 is strongly recommended for early childhood intervention assessments."
Review: Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities
"The ability to collaborate with other professionals, facilitate the involvement and empowerment of families in assessment and intervention, and provide services in natural settings are skills that are keys to success in practice . . . the transdisciplinary system described in the TPBA2 and TPBI2 is one that readily promotes these skills."
Review by: Shannon Haley-Mize, Early Interventionist, Institute for Disability Studies, University of Southern Mississippi
"Allows the family to be actively involved in the assessment, calls attention to play behaviors and engagement, and provides rich information that proved useful to intervention planning. TPBA/I are pivotal to providing quality services within the child's natural environment and integrating the child's goals into daily activities and routines."
Review by: Margie Larsen, Preschool Consultant, Educational Diagnostician
"Embedded in child development theory and research, TPBA/I 2 have revolutionized assessment methodologies for preschool age children . . . consistently yields comprehensive, rich data as evidence to develop intervention teaching strategies that address the development of the whole child."

About the Authors

Preface

Acknowledgments

1. A Review of Transdisciplinary Play-Based Intervention

2. Planning Considerations for TPBI2

3. Facilitating Sensorimotor Development

I. Strategies for Improving Functions Underlying Movement
with Anita C. Bundy

II. Strategies for Improving Gross Motor Activity

III. Strategies for Improving Arm and Hand Use
with Susan Dwinal and Anita C. Bundy

IV. Strategies for Improving Motor Planning and Coordination
with Anita C. Bundy

V. Strategies for Improving Modulation of Sensation and Its Relationship to Emotion, Activity Level, and Attention
with Anita C. Bundy

I. Strategies for Improving Sensorimotor Contributions to Daily Life and Self-Care
with Anita C. Bundy

4. Strategies for Working with Children with Visual Impairments
Tanni L. Anthony

5. Facilitating Emotional and Social Development

I. Strategies for Improving Emotional Expression
II. Strategies for Improving Emotional Style/Adaptability
III. Strategies for Improving Regulation of Emotions and Arousal States
IV. Strategies for Improving Behavioral Regulation
V. Strategies for Improving Sense of Self
VI. Strategies for Improving Emotional Themes in Play
VII. Strategies for Improving Social Interactions

6. Facilitating Communication Development

I. Strategies for Improving Language Comprehension
II. Strategies for Improving Language Production
with Natasha Hall
III. Strategies for Improving Pragmatics
IV. Strategies for Improving Articulation and Phonology
V. Strategies for Improving Voice and Fluency
with Renee Charlifue-Smith
VI. Strategies for Improving the Function of the Oral Mechanism for Speech Production
VII. Strategies for Improving Hearing and Communication
with Jan Christian Hafer

7. Facilitating Cognitive Development

I. Strategies for Improving Attention
II. Strategies for Improving Memory
III. Strategies for Improving Problem Solving
IV. Strategies for Improving Social Cognition
V. Strategies for Improving Complexity of Play
VI. Strategies for Improving Conceptual Knowledge

8. Strategies for Supporting Emerging Literacy
with Forrest Hancock

Index

Excerpted from Chapters 1 and 2 of Transdisciplinary Play-Based Intervention, Second Edition by Toni W. Linder, Ed.D., with invited contributors.

Copyright © 2008 by Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.

In Transdisciplinary Play-Based Assessment, Second Edition (TPBA2), a vignette was presented that illustrated the traditional and TPBA approaches from the child’s point of view. In the following vignette, the difference between traditional intervention and transdisciplinary Play-Based intervention (TPBI2) is presented from the child’s point of view. Because intervention at home and at school or child care may look very different, both situations are exemplified. Note that the role of the child, the therapist, and parent or teacher is similar in both settings, but very different depending on the approach.

TRADITIONAL INTERVENTION AT HOME

Imagine yourself as a 2 1/2-year-old boy with cerebral palsy and overall developmental delays. You are sitting on your Mommy’s lap looking at pictures in a book when the doorbell rings. Mommy puts you down on the floor and goes to answer the door. She smiles and tells Rosa to come in. Rosa brings in her bag of toys and you smile at her too. You know what is in that bag. Rosa has fun toys! You crawl over to the bag and try to get into it. Rosa and Mommy are talking about you and what you have been doing all week. You start pulling out Rosa’s toys, looking for the one that has lights and makes noises. Oh, here it is! You start banging on it, trying to make it go. Rosa pushes the button for you. Mommy sits in her chair and watches you play with Rosa. Rosa takes out another toy, the one with rings you put on a stick. This is not your favorite toy. It is hard. So you go back to the first toy and bang on it some more. Rosa gets the “doughnuts” again and helps you put them on the stick. Rosa then gets out markers and paper and puts them on the coffee table. She tries to get you to stand up and come play with the markers. She helps you stand and hands you the marker. You bang the marker on the paper a couple of times and then sit down. Standing up is hard and writing is not fun. You crawl over to Mommy so she will pick you up, but instead, Mommy says, “I’ll let you two play for a while. I need to clean up the kitchen while you guys are busy.” Mommy leaves the room. You try to follow her, but Rosa pulls you back and hands you another toy. Okay. Playing is fun. You stay in the living room and play on the floor until Rosa packs up her toys to leave. Mommy comes back and tells her, “See you in a couple of weeks.” Rosa says, “Maya will be out next week to work on some of his motor issues.” I’m not nuts about Maya. She makes me do hard things.

TRANSDISCIPLINARY PLAY-BASED INTERVENTION

You are sitting on your Mommy’s lap looking at pictures in a book when the doorbell rings. Mommy puts you down on the floor and goes to answer the door. She smiles and tells Rachel to come in. Rachel talks to me and plays with me with my favorite pop-up toy, while she asks Mommy about our week and what was fun and what was hard. Mommy says she is having trouble getting her work done at home, because I need attention and lots of help. It’s true. I like my Mommy to spend time with me! Rachel asks what Mommy would like to be doing right now, and she says, “I really need to be cleaning up the kitchen from breakfast and lunch. It’s one o’clock, and I can’t seem to get time to do what I need to do. It’s better on the days that he goes to child care. I get a little time to myself.” Rachel says, “Then let’s go into the kitchen and look at how Sam can help out and learn some new skills!” We all go into the kitchen, which (Mommy is right) is a mess! Rachel says, “Let’s see. We want him to be motivated to stand independently, to be able to use two hands together, to learn some useful new words, and to entertain himself independently. Right?” “Especially, that last one!” my Mommy laughs. “Okay. Let’s think about this for a minute,” Rachel says. “What in this room does Sam like?” Mommy laughs, “Aside from food? He loves water.” (She’s right about that!) “He likes getting into my cupboards and pulling things out!” (She’s also right about that!) Rachel says, “Let’s let him help with washing dishes.” Rachel looks around then goes into the living room, comes back with my little plastic table and cube chair, and puts the table up against the wall. “This way,” she says, “the table is stabilized and Sam can pull up on it without pushing it away. Do you have a plastic tub or pot we can put some water in?” I crawl over to see what Mommy is doing in the cupboard, and I see lots of fun pots and pans. “Let’s let him pick one,” Rachel says. “That lets him make choices and be independent.” “Sam, get a pan out.” No problem there. I pull out a big one in front. Rachel says, “How about some spoons and stuff like that?” Mommy opens a drawer and I pull up to stand and look inside. “Great!” Rachel says, “He wants to see in the drawer. That’s a great way to motivate him to pull to stand!” Mommy lets me pull out a few things and throw them on the floor, then she shuts the drawer. Rachel puts water in the pan, shows me, and takes it to my little table. “Wawa!” I shout and crawl to the table. “Yes, Sam. It’s water. Come help Mommy clean the dishes.” I pull up and reach for the water. Rachel moves the chair so I can sit down by myself. Mommy brings over the stuff I threw on the floor and puts them in the pot of water. I reach in and get a spoon and start playing. Rachel asks Mommy for a sponge and then shows me how to squeeze the sponge. It’s hard, but I like watching the water come out. She shows me how to wipe the spoon. Hey, this cleaning is fun!

Rachel says, “Okay. Now that he’s cleaning, we can start.” Mommy and Rachel go to the sink and Mom puts water in the sink and starts to wash her dishes. Rachel tells her about how to “model” for me, says, “Sam, spoon,” when we are washing spoons, and tells Mommy to give me something new to wash when I get bored. I’m not bored, though. I love playing in the water. Mommy keeps showing me what she is washing, then tells me it’s my turn to wash. I show her how to squeeze the sponge. Mommy says, “Great, Sam. You are such a big helper.” I really am! Mommy and Rachel and I are talking while Mommy and I are washing dishes. When we are all done, Mommy lets me use my sponge to clean up my “mess.” Mommy laughs and tells Rachel that maybe she’ll have me help put the clothes in the washer and dryer too. Rachel says that that is a terrific idea, because if the laundry basket is on the floor, I will need to get up and down to take out each piece and then put it in the dryer, and I’ll need to use two hands on the bigger pieces. I like taking things out and putting them in. I think we should do that now. I say, “out” and Mommy and Rachel look at each other, smile, and nod. Mommy says, “I never thought about how a ‘chore’ for me is play for him. But, this gives me all kinds of ideas about how we can do things together that will help both of us!”

TRADITIONAL INTERVENTION IN CHILD CARE AND EARLY EDUCATION

I am sitting with my friend, listening to my teacher read a book, when Miss Mary comes in to get me. She tells my teacher she’ll bring me back in time for snack. Good. I like snack, but I’d like to have heard the end of the story before we left. She carries me to her office where she has a little table and chairs. She has a doll and some cars on the table, so that looks like fun. I sit in the chair and Miss Mary asks me to show her the baby’s mouth, eyes, and nose. I point to them. “What is this?” she asks and points to the baby’s head. I tell her it’s “har.” I don’t know why we are pointing to these things. Can’t we just play with them? I start pushing the cars around and making noises like my daddy’s car. She hold up a car and says, “C–A–R. Say ‘car,’ Sam.” I try to imitate her. Then I go back to pushing the car and making car noises. Miss Mary gets out a book and starts to show me pictures in the book. She asks me what the pictures are. Doesn’t she know? After the book, Miss Mary takes me back to my class and tells me she’ll see me next week. Good. I’m back in time for snack!

TRANSDISCIPLINARY PLAY-BASED INTERVENTION IN CHILD CARE AND EARLY EDUCATION

Mr. Bob comes in before story time and talks to my teacher. I am sitting in my cube chair, ‘cause Mr. Bob told me and my teacher that I will be able to sit better, talk better, and pay better attention in my cube chair. I think he is right. We used to all sit on carpet squares, and I had to work so hard to sit up I couldn’t pay attention to the story or talk to the teacher! Other kids have cube chairs too, and some sit on the floor or on a special cushion. Mr. Bob brought my book for me to look at while we are listening. Mr. Bob made my book for me. It has just has three pages and they are thick pages, so I can turn them myself. This book helps me see what the teacher is talking about. We all take turns helping the teacher tell the story. Sometimes, when it is my turn to tell the story, I get to use Mr. Bob’s talking book. My teacher holds up her book, and I push the buttons on my talking book, and the book tells the story. I try to talk as much as I can. I tell my friends what I want them to shout out, like what the cow says. I like being the teacher. We do the same story every day for many days and pretty soon I know a lot of the words in the story and can tell other people what I know.

Mr. Bob stays after story time. That’s when we all have choices about what we want to do. Mr. Bob helps us tell the teacher what we want to do, and then he goes around and helps some of us. He likes to help us talk to our friends and say what we’re doing. Sometimes he uses sign language or pictures. My friend Alison has a machine that Mr. Bob helps her use. When she pushes on part of it, the machine talks for her! It is really cool. Mr. Bob is teaching my teacher (how neat is that!) how to make it talk. Sometimes Mr. Bob brings in his friends. He calls them part of his “team” to teach him what to do. There is a lot of teaching going on in this classroom!

Now it is snack time, and Mr. Bob is eating with us today. He says he is going to eat his cracker and cheese in his ear! I shout, “Mouth!” Mr. Bob says, “Stop, Bob!” He laughs, tells me ‘thank you,’ and eats it with his mouth. Good thing I told him what to do. Then he said he is going to listen to me with his nose. I laugh. Mr. Bob is so funny. Marisa tells him, “Stop, Bob!” He stops and looks at her. She points to her ear. “Ear, Bob.” I say it too. “Ear, Bob!” My teacher asks me if I want to smell the cheese and holds the cheese to my eye. Everybody laughs, and says, “Stop, Ana!” My teacher says, “Where should I hold the cheese?” Everyone shouts, “His nose!” “Nose!” I yell too. She holds it up to my nose and I smell it. It’s fun to tell the teacher what to do!

The purpose of Transdisciplinary Play-Based Intervention, Second Edition (TPBI2) is to present a process for planning, implementing, and evaluating intervention for children from birth to 6 years of age who need supports to enhance their development. Within TPBI, the intent is to provide a structure for that process, a framework for conceptualizing intervention strategies, and a means for monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of the strategies selected.

TEAM MEMBERS

Team members in TPBI, whether the same or different from the TPBA team, work together to support the family members, care providers, and early educators who interact with the child daily. During the post-assessment planning phase, the team members listen to family members and, along with them, provide input as to what the child’s needs are, what services would best meet those needs, and what form intervention should take. Either during the post-assessment planning time or during a pre-intervention planning phase, the team moves from talk of services to a plan for implementing actual strategies. During the pre-intervention planning phase, the whole team, or possibly a couple of representatives of the team if TPBA was done in the home, meet with primary caregivers and teachers to talk about the specifics of what outcomes are desired, what functional objectives will guide intervention, and what strategies can be used across the day to support development and learning. For children in school, separate planning meetings may be held with parents and teachers, although this is not recommended because all caregivers need to be on the same page, even if issues at home and school are different. The team members help the primary caregivers think about possible outcomes and help them identify times of the day, activities, or events for which they either need intervention ideas or identify times when their positive interactions with their child are ripe for interventions to be introduced. This is a brainstorming time, and parents and teachers may agree or disagree with ideas presented, talk about what has already been tried, reveal personal struggles, and/or share their own perceptions about what strategies might work. The team’s role is to listen, support, help weigh the options, and then facilitate the development of the actual intervention plan. During the intervention phase, the role of team members varies depending on the age of the child, location of services, and level and type of strategies identified. Both for the child and the parents or teachers, the goal is to provide intervention based on the system of least support, meaning that, as much as possible, the team members play a consultation role, stepping in to provide more guidance or structure as needed. The goals for the child, parents, caregivers, and educators are independence and the ability to think for oneself and solve problems creatively and independently. Team members’ roles vary with each individual person, in accordance with their need and desire for varying levels of support. During the evaluation phase, team members provide observations, elicit parent perceptions, and try to pull together an objective view of progress and next steps.

TPBI is not like traditional therapy, in which specialists meet with a child and do hands-on, direct intervention for their areas of expertise. TPBI is a team approach, with a concerted effort made to provide holistic intervention. In an earlier analogy, the relationship between the child, family, and team was described as a wheel, with the child as the hub, the team as the spokes, and the family as the rim, holding all together and making it roll. An alternative way of perceiving the relationship might be that the child is the hub, the family members, teachers, and other significant people in the child’s life are the spokes, and the team is the rim that provides the support to the inner pieces. The rim cannot function effectively if part of it is missing or ineffective. The team must be in constant communication, support each other in many ways, and function as a unit. In short, the child, family, teachers, and team must function in a collaborative whole for intervention to be maximally effective. Most of us do not get to choose our teams, our families, or our children, but we do our best to make it all work. When intervention “works,” it does so because each member of the team contributes information, suggestions and advice, training, coaching, supervision, and emotional support. Intervention works when team members are caring, nonjudgmental, open, willing, honest, tolerant, and patient. Intervention works when parents are caring, nonjudgmental, open, willing, honest, tolerant, and patient. And intervention works when all parties listen to each other, integrate ideas, and collaborate in making them work. Although this doesn’t always happen, just think what could happen if the wheel rolled in a straight line without wobbling.

Everyone on the team implements intervention in a different way, playing different roles as called for. One model for thinking about implementing TPBI is that each team that provides early intervention (EI) and/or early childhood special education (ECSE) support consists of members from a variety of different disciplines, depending on the needs of the population served. The team conducts the TPBA together, as described in Chapter 1 of TPBA2. The team holds the post-assessment meeting. Things then can become unclear, because different states and agencies function in different ways. At some point in the process, an intervention team is assigned to work with the child and family, and hopefully the same team also works with the caregivers and teachers (although this is not a given). For each child, a family facilitator should be assigned. Ideally, the family facilitator is a person who already has connected well with the family or has expertise in the area of the child’s primary disability or needs. The family facilitator should remain the family contact and develop a trusting relationship with the family in order to provide continuity. The rest of the team should support this facilitator.

The team, including the intervention facilitator, should meet on a weekly basis to discuss the children and families in order to garner ideas and support. Intermittently, a short video clip of the child involved in various daily activities should be presented for the team to watch and provide input. Discussion should revolve around key issues and questions the intervention facilitator brings to the team. Whenever possible, home visits or classroom visits should be made by pairs of team members. This is important for several reasons. Two team members can offer fresh perspectives on the child and family, provide coaching in their own areas of expertise, provide feedback to the primary intervention facilitator on how they think the child or family is responding, and/or provide peer mentoring. Taking different team members at varying times expands the opportunities for rethinking intervention strategies. In addition, when team meetings are held and the child and family are discussed, the team members have more “real life” perspective to bring to the table.

A key factor to remember in TPBI is that all team members are merely supporters for the true primary interventionists—the parents, caregivers, and teachers who spend many hours with the child each day. The role of the intervention facilitator is to help those people gain knowledge, skills, and confidence in their interactions with the child, while at the same time helping them to “keep it real,” to make learning and developing more fun and motivating than ever before.

TYPES OF INTERVENTIONS

Within TPBI2, ideas for intervention are presented in several ways. General principles that promote development are offered along with strategies to help adults create supportive learning environments. Suggestions also are presented for fostering development and learning across cognitive, emotional and social, communication, and sensorimotor areas through modification of interpersonal interactions. Examples are shared of applying strategies in various activities and routines across the child’s day at home and child care or school. Developmentally appropriate suggestions also are illustrated. The team, therefore, has a repertoire of ideas from which to draw. The type of strategies that are identified to try in intervention will vary depending on the child’s age, type of disability, and degree of severity of disability; the setting in which intervention is taking place; the adult’s relationship with the child; and the adult’s confidence in using the strategies. The professional’s role with the child and adults in the child’s life will also vary, depending on the type and level of support needed and desired.

MATERIALS

No specific materials are required to conduct intervention in the TPBI approach. TPBI is a process, using whatever is in the natural environment. In addition, therapists may recommend modifications of the environment or materials or the use of therapeutic materials or equipment that may enhance the child’s functioning. Whenever possible, the team (including family members and teachers) should use the same materials in the home and classroom as the peers or siblings without disabilities. Adaptations or special toys, materials, and equipment are included when doing so will increase the child’s motivation and increase skills or independence. The most important “materials” are the forms used in the planning process for TPBI.

Forms are merely an aid to the TPBI2 process. They give structure to the process and provide a guide for thinking about, planning, implementing, and evaluating intervention. Modifications of the included forms or substitutions with specific program forms may be needed to meet state or agency requirements. A summary of the forms used in TPBI and their descriptions follow (note that all forms are included on the TPBA2 & TPBI2 Forms CD-ROM):

  • Post-assessment/before intervention:

    Child Assessment and Recommendations Checklist (see Appendix in Administration Guide for TPBA2 & TPBI2) Family Service Coordination Checklist (Forms CD-ROM only)

    Team Intervention Plan (see Appendix in Administration Guide)

  • Beginning intervention and ongoing

    Collaborative Problem-Solving Worksheet (see Appendix in Administration Guide)

    TIP Strategies Checklist: Home and Community (see Appendix in Administration Guide)

    TIP Strategies Checklist: Child Care and Early Education (see Appendix in Administration Guide)

  • Ongoing and post-intervention (optional, as other monitoring tools may be used)

    Functional Outcomes Rubrics (FORs) by TPBA2 Domain (4) (sensorimotor, emotional and social, communication, and cognitive; see Appendix in Administration Guide)

    Functional Outcomes Rubrics by OSEP Child Outcome (3) (CD-ROM only)

    Team Assessment of Progress (TAP) Form (see Appendix in Administration Guide)
    OSEP Child Outcomes Reporting Form and Worksheets (CD-ROM only)

Description of Forms

Child Assessment and Recommendations Checklist

This optional form can be completed after TPBA2 and after services and interventions are determined. It summarizes what the child and family’s needs are, what type of interventions and services will be provided and by whom. It also notes the time for a review of progress.

Family Service Coordination Checklist

This optional form can be used for IDEA Part C service coordination. It identifies areas of potential need and family strengths, as well as who will be responsible for helping to access services in these areas.

Team Intervention Plan

This form is meant to be used after the TPBA and any other assessments are completed. It identifies selected global outcomes and priority intervention subcategories, as well as specific functional targets for intervention.

Collaborative Problem-Solving Worksheet

The Collaborative Problem-Solving Worksheet (CPSW) is used to record the subcategories selected and functional intervention targets determined. Other developmental areas that also can be addressed along with intervention targets can be indicated as well. Specific interactional and environmental strategies and resources for intervention are noted on this worksheet.

TIP Strategies Checklist: Home and Community

This TIP checklist identifies, in brief format, ideas for types of activities or routines at home and in the community where intervention can be embedded, along with suggestions for types of interactional and environmental strategies that may be considered. This checklist is meant to stimulate ideas and can be used when completing the CPSW.

TIP Strategies Checklist: School and Child Care

This TIP Strategies Checklist identifies, in brief format, ideas for types of activities or routines at education and child care settings where intervention can be embedded, along with suggestions for types of interactional and environmental strategies that may be considered. This checklist is meant to stimulate ideas and can be used when completing the CPSW.

Functional Outcomes Rubrics by TPBA2 Domain

These charts provide a matrix of Goal Attainment Scales for each of the domains of development, by subcategory. The Goal Attainment Scales show the progression from minimal to functional skills for the subcategory. The scale is used to indicate baseline of performance (behavior on implementation of intervention) and level of performance at two subsequent measurement intervals. If desired, priority subcategories can be chosen by domain from these charts. Once the priority subcategories are determined by the team, functional intervention targets are written.

Functional Outcomes Rubrics by OSEP Child Outcome

These charts provide a matrix of Goal Attainment Scales for each of the OSEP Child Outcomes. These include the same Goal Attainment Scales as on the FOR by TPBA2 Domain but organized by OSEP Child outcome. Once the priority subcategories are determined by the team, functional intervention targets are written (for more information, see OSEP Child Outcomes Reporting with TPBA2 on the optional TPBA2 & TPBI2 Forms CD-ROM.

Team Assessment of Progress (TAP) Form

The TAP Form is meant to be used to evaluate the child’s progress on the Goal Attainment Scales for the subcategories selected as priorities for intervention. These are completed at least twice a year, but preferably more frequently. (A more comprehensive review of all subcategories by the team can also be done using the FORs; refer to the instructions on the optional CD-ROM for translating this information into outcomes reporting categories.) The Team Intervention Plan is then revised by reexamining desired global outcomes, identifying new subcategory priorities, and writing new intervention targets.

OSEP Child Outcomes Reporting Form and Worksheets

States, and therefore programs within states, are required to report the percentage of children receiving IDEA services who improve, maintain, or do not improve functioning on three federally designated child outcomes. (For additional information, see OSEP Child Outcomes Reporting with TPBA2 on the optional TPBA2 & TPBI2 Forms CD-ROM.) This form and its worksheets enable programs to track a child’s progress using the Goal Attainment Scales and the FORs by OSEP Child Outcome.

TPBI PROCESS

TPBI is meant to be a flexible process. It is meant to be used in conjunction with TPBA2, because TPBA serves as an initial experiment in intervention and thus provides a foundation for planning approaches that may be beneficial. The TPBI process can be used following any assessment that results in obtaining sufficient functional information to be used for intervention planning. Once the team has information on the child’s skills, behaviors, learning style, interactional preferences, and functional needs, intervention planning can proceed. The TPBI process involves several steps before actually beginning intervention. These steps establish the direction for intervention efforts, narrow down the focus of efforts to functional targets the family and other providers can address, and then lay out a plan for intervention. Specific forms are provided to facilitate thinking through each step of the TPBI process. Teams may choose to use their own forms, may use the TPBI2 forms in addition to agency forms, or may use only the TPBI2 forms. The core of TPBI2 is not in the paperwork, it is in the use of recommended strategies with children, families, and professionals. The forms are meant to support this work, not detract from it. Therefore, use the pieces that are needed and helpful.

The Twelve Steps (in the following section) outline how the TPBI process is completed and illustrate the means by which the state-of-the-art theories, research, and methodologies outlined in Chapter 9 of the Administration Guide (Fundamentals of TPBI2) have been incorporated into the process. As with TPBA2, professionals are given various tools and options for how to use them to meet individual program or team needs and preferences. The various means provided to plan intervention are described in the following sections, along with descriptions and examples of how the TPBI2 planning process can be used with a diverse population of children.

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