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Children with Disabilities, Seventh Edition

Children with Disabilities, Seventh Edition

Volume Editors: Mark L. Batshaw M.D., Nancy J. Roizen M.D., Gaetano R. Lotrecchiano Ed.D., Ph.D.   Chapter Authors: Kruti Acharya M.D., George Acs D.M.D., M.P.H., Laura Gutermuth Anthony Ph.D., Donna Bernhardt Bainbridge Ed.D., Stephen Baumgart M.D., FAAP, Michelle Bestic Pharm.D., Michael J. Bina Ed.D., Pamela Buethe Ph.D., Philippa H. Campbell Ph.D., Michael F. Cataldo Ph.D., Marilyn Cataldo M.A., Taeun Chang M.D., Robin P. Church Ed.D., Elissa Batshaw Clair Ed.S., M.Ed., Iser DeLeon Ph.D., Dewi Frances T. Depositario-Cabacar M.D., Larry W. Desch M.D., Nienke P. Dosa M.D., Andre Du Plesis M.D., MBChB, Peggy S. Eicher M.D., Patrick C. Friman Ph.D., ABPP, William Davis Gaillard M.D., Chrysanthe Gaitatzes M.D., Ph.D., Brooke E. Geddie D.O., Arlene Gendron, Angelo P. Giardino M.D., Ph.D., Marianne M. Glanzman M.D., James Gleason PT, M.S., Andrea L. Gropman M.D., Rebecca M. Haesler M.S., RD, LD, Gilbert R. Herer Ph.D., CCC-A, Alexander H. Hoon Jr., M.D., Susan L. Hyman M.D., SungWoo Kahng Ph.D., Peter B. Kang M.D., Robert F. Keating M.D., Lauren Kenworthy Ph.D., Brendan Lanpher M.D., Susan E. Levy M.D., M. E. B. Lewis Ed.D, Michelle Huckaby Lewis M.D., J.D., Gregory S. Liptak M.D., M.P.H., Toby M. Long Ph.D., PT, Brian K. Martens Ph.D., MariJean Miller M.D., Jocelyn Mills RD, CSP, LD, Scott M. Myers M.D., Jerome A. Paulson M.D., Joan E. Pellegrino M.D., Louis Pellegrino M.D., Steven Perlman D.D.S., M.Sc.D., Khodayar Rais-Bahrami M.D., Adelaide Robb M.D., Rhonda L. Schonberg M.S., Scott C. Schultz M.D., Vincent Schuyler B.A., FABDA, Neelam Sell M.D., Bruce K. Shapiro M.D., Billie Lou Short M.D., Kara L. Simpson M.S., CGC, Peter J. Smith M.D., M.A., Sheela L. Stuart Ph.D., CCC-SLP, Adrienne S. Tedeschi M.D., Frances Tolley RN, B.S.N., Melissa K. Trovato M.D., Renee M. Turchi M.D., M.P.H., Betty Vohr M.D., H. Barry Waldman D.D.S., M.P.H., Patience H. White M.D., M.A., Amanda L. Yaun M.D., Michaela L. Zajicek-Farber M.S.W., Ph.D., Tesfaye Getaneh Zelleke M.D., Michelle H. Zimmer M.D.

ISBN: 978-1-59857-194-3
Pages: 904
Copyright: 2013
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Size:  7.0 x 10.0
Stock Number:  71943
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Comprehensive, authoritative information from the most respected experts: For 30 years, that's what Children with Disabilities has given the thousands of students, faculty, and professionals who rely on it. Now this trusted text is in a NEW seventh edition, thoroughly updated with the very latest research, new instructor materials, and the critical issues professionals need to know as they prepare to work with children and families. Incorporating 5 years of significant research and progress in multiple disciplines, this highly anticipated new edition is the textbook of choice for courses on disability. The internationally respected editors bring together a who's who of contributors—of seasoned experts and fresh voices—definitive compendium of information about developmental, clinical, family, education, and intervention issues.


  • All-new chapters on diagnosis, neuropsychological assessment, "new" disabilities faced by survivors of previously fatal disorders, and complementary and alternative medicine
  • New multimedia instructor materials online, including high-quality downloadable medical illustrations
  • 30+ new contributors from diverse fields
  • Expanded chapters on autism and ADHD
  • New developments in neuroscience, genetics, and imaging
  • Greater focus on interdisciplinary collaboration
  • Considerations from drafts of the DSM-5
  • Thoroughly updated content in every chapter
  • PowerPoint slides for each chapter, easy to customize for courses

Children with Disabilities retains and strengthens the student-friendly features of previous editions: concise and accessible chapters, a helpful glossary, chapter overviews, case studies that bring key concepts to life, extensive cross-referencing to make information easy to find, and resource lists for every topic. And with the complete package of new multimedia instructor materials, instructors will use this textbook effectively in their courses and prepare students for years of successful practice. An unparalleled text from the leading voices in the disability field, Children with Disabilities is the cornerstone resource future professionals will keep year after year to support their important work with children and families.

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Review by: Anastasia Dimitropoulos, Assistant Professor of Psychology, Department of Psychological Sciences, Case Western Reserve University
"A comprehensive resource for reference and instruction on neurodevelopmental disorders and many other disciplines . . . a must-have book in the field of disabilities."
Review by: Heidi Feldman, Stanford University School of Medicine
"A gem . . . clear, concise, and well written. I enthusiastically recommend the seventh edition of Children with Disabilities for both practicing professionals and students alike."
Review by: Paul Lipkin, Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
"Comprehensive in its overview of both the biomedical foundation of disabilities and the psychosocial aspects of care . . . deserves to be on the desks and bookshelves of those working in the health, education, and treatment communities."
Review by: Marci Hanson, San Francisco State University
"A 'must have' reference for every professional in the field of developmental disabilities. No other resource provides such comprehensive information in a highly readable format."
Review by: Michael Guralnick, Director, Center on Human Development and Disability, Professor of Psychology and Pediatrics, University of Washington
"Another outstanding edition of what has become the most comprehensive and authoritative text in the field of developmental disabilities."
Review by: Fred Volkmar, Yale University School of Medicine and Yale New Haven Hospital
"An invaluable resource covering the range of disabilities and interventions used to treat them . . . This new version remains an indispensable classic in the field."
About the Online Companion Materials
About the Editors
A Personal Note to the Reader
Letters from Andrew Batshaw

I. As Life Begins

  1. Genetics and Developmental Disabilities
    Mark L. Batshaw, Andrea Gropman, and Brendan Lanpher

    Genetic Disorders
    Cell Division and Its Disorders
    Genes and Their Disorders
    Genetic Testing
    Environmental Influences on Heredity
  1. Fetal Development
    Adré J. du Plessis

    Structural Development of the Brain
    Functional Development of the Fetal Nervous System
  1. Environmental Toxicants and Neurocognitive Development
    Jerome Paulson

    Scope of the Issue
    Susceptible Periods of Development
    Specific Toxicants
    Public Policy Implications
  1. Birth Defects and Prenatal Diagnosis
    Rhonda L. Schonberg

    Screening Evaluations During Pregnancy
    Prevention and Alternative Reproductive Choices
    Psychosocial Implications
  1. Newborn Screening: Opportunities for Prevention of Developmental Disabilities
    Joan E. Pellegrino

    What Is a Screening Test?
    Why Screen Newborns?
    How Is Newborn Screening Done?
    What Should Be Done When a Child Has a Positive Newborn Screen?
    What Happens to Children with Confirmed Disease?
    What Is the Risk of Developmental Disability in Children with Confirmed Disease?
    How Can Screening Fail?
    The Past, Present, and Future of Newborn Screening
    Prenatal Screening
  1. The First Weeks of Life
    Chrysanthe Gaitatzes, Taeun Chang, and Stephen Baumgart

    The Fetus Before Birth
    The Birth Process
    The Nervous System
  1. Premature and Small-for-Dates Infants
    Khodayar Rais-Bahrami and Billie Lou Short

    Definitions of Prematurity and Low Birth Weight
    Incidence of Preterm Births
    Causes of Premature Birth
    Complications of Prematurity
    Medical and Developmental Care of Low Birth Weight Infants
    Survival of Low Birth Weight Infants
    Care After Discharge From the Hospital
    Early Intervention Programs
    Neurodevelopmental Outcome
II. The Developing Child
  1. Nutrition and Children with Disabilities
    Rebecca M. Haesler and Jocelyn J. Mills

    Typical Growth During Childhood
    Nutritional Guidelines
    Nutritional Issues in Children with Developmental Disabilities
    Medical Nutritional Therapy
    Special Nutritional Concerns in Children with Disabilities
    Nutrition within Complimentary and Alternative Medical Care
  1. Feeding and Its Disorders
    Peggy S. Eicher

    The Feeding Process
    Feeding and the Influence of Medical Conditions
    Feeding and the Influence of Tone, Posture, and Development
    Feeding Problems in Children with Disabilities
    Evaluation of a Feeding Problem
    Managing Feeding Problems
  1. Hearing and Deafness
    Pamela Buethe, Betty R. Vohr, and Gilbert R. Herer

    The 1-3-6 Guidelines for Screening and Diagnosis
    The Hearing System
    Defining Sound
    Defining Hearing Loss
    Causes of Hearing Loss
    Identifications of Hearing Loss
    Intervention for Hearing Loss
  1. Vision and Visual Impairment
    Brooke E. Geddie, Michael J. Bina, and Marijean M. Miller

    Structure and Function of the Eye
    Ocular Development
    Development of Visual Skills
    Common Disorders of the Eye in Children with Disabilities
    Disorders of the Visual Cortex
    Strabismus and Ocular Motility Disorders
    Refractive Errors in Children
    Vision Assessment
  1. The Brain and Nervous System
    Amanda Yaun, Robert Keating, and Andrea Gropman

    The Brain and Spinal Cord
    The Peripheral Nervous System
    The Microscopic Architecture of the Brain
    Techniques for Evaluating the Central Nervous System
  1. Muscles, Bones, and Nerves
    Peter B. Kang

    Components of the Neuromuscular and Musculoskeletal Systems
    Symptoms and Signs of Neuromuscular and Musculoskeletal Disorders
    Laboratory Testing and Radiography
    Disorders of the Neuromuscular System
    Disorders of the Musculoskeletal System
    Principles for the Management of Neuromuscular and Musculoskeletal Disorders
  1. Patterns in Development and Disability
    Louis Pellegrino

    Defining Disability
    Defining Development
    Patterns in Development
    Disturbances in Development
  1. Diagnosing Developmental Disabilities
    Scott M. Myers

    Atypical Patterns of Development
    Developmental Principles
    Diagnostic Classification
    The Diagnostic Process
  1. Understanding and Using Neurocognitive Assessments
    Lauren Kenworthy and Laura Gutermuth Anthony

    The Purpose of Neuropsychological Assessment
    A Model for Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment
    Domains of Functioning Assessed in Neuropsychological Evaluations
    Ensuring that Assessment Informs Management
III. Developmental Disabilities
  1. Developmental Delay and Intellectual Disability
    Bruce K. Shapiro and Mark L. Batshaw

    Early Identification of Developmental Delay
    Defining Intellectual Disability
    Classification of Intellectual Disability
    Prevalence of Intellectual Disability
    Associated ImpairmentsMedical Diagnostic Testing
    Psychological Testing
    Treatment Approaches
  1. Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21)
    Nancy J. Roizen

    Chromosomal Findings
    Effects of Trisomy 21
    Early Identification
    Medical Complications in Down Syndrome
    Neurodevelopment and Behavior
    Evaluation and Treatment
  1. Inborn Errors of Metabolism
    Mark L. Batshaw and Brendan Lanpher

    Types of Inborn Errors of Metabolism
    Mechanism of Brain Damage
    Associated Disabilities
    Diagnostic Testing
    Newborn Screening
    Therapeutic Approaches
  1. Speech and Language Disorders
    Sheela Stuart

    Components of Communication
    Typical Development of Speech and Language
    Communication Disorders
    Types of Communication Disorders
    Treatment Approaches
  1. Autism Spectrum Disorders
    Susan L. Hyman and Susan E. Levy

    Diagnostic Categories within the Autism Spectrum
    Diagnostic Features of Autism Spectrum Disorders
    Causes of Autism Spectrum Disorders
    Epidemiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders
    Early Identification of Autism Spectrum Disorders
    Associated Conditions
    Treatment Approaches
  1. Attention Deficits and Hyperactivity
    Marianne Glanzman and Neelam Sell

    Diagnosis and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Subtypes
    Prevalence and Epidemiology
    Clinical Presentation
    Common Coexisting Conditions
    Associated Impairments
    Causes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
    The Evaluation Process
    Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
    Treatment with Coexisting Conditions
    Alternative Therapies
  1. Specific Learning Disabilities
    M.E.B. Lewis, Bruce K. Shapiro, and Robin P. Church

    Defining Learning Disorders
    Response to Intervention
    Specific Reading Disability
    Specific Mathematics Disability
    Impairments Associated with Specific Learning Disabilities
    Health Problems Simulating Specific Learning Disabilities
    Assessment Procedures
    Intervention Strategies
  1. Cerebral Palsy
    Alexander H. Hoon, Jr., and Frances Tolley

    What Is Cerebral Palsy?
    What Causes Cerebral Palsy?
    Risk Factors
    Subtypes of Cerebral Palsy
    Establishing the Etiology (Cause) of Cerebral Palsy
    Associated Impairments in Cerebral Palsy
    Comprehensive Management for Individuals with Cerebral Palsy
  1. Neural Tube Defects
    Gregory S. Liptak

    Prevalence of Neural Tube Defects
    The Origin of Neural Tube Defects
    Prevention of Neural Tube Defects Using Folic Acid Supplementation
    Prenatal Diagnosis
    Treatment of Meningomyelocele in the Newborn Period
    Primary Neurological Impairments in Children with Meningomyelocele
    Associated Impairments and Medical Complications
    Educational Programs
    Psychosocial Issues for the Child
    Interdisciplinary Management
  1. Traumatic Brain Injury
    Melissa K. Trovato and Scott C. Schultz

    Incidence of Traumatic Brain Injury
    Causes of Traumatic Brain Injury
    Types of Brain Injuries
    Detection of Traumatic Brain Injury
    Severity of Traumatic Brain Injury
    Acute Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury
    Rehabilitation of Children with Traumatic Brain Injury
    Outcome of Moderate to Severe Traumatic Brain Injury
  1. Epilepsy
    Tesfaye Getaneh Zelleke, Dewi Francis T. Depositaro-Cabacar, and William Davis Gaillard

    Epilepsy: Definitions and Classification
    Diagnosis and Evaluation
    Multidisciplinary Care
  1. The New Face of Developmental Disabilities
    Nancy J. Roizen and Adrienne S. Tedeschi

    Sickle-Cell Disease
    Cancer: Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia and Brain Tumors
    Human Immunodeficiency Virus
    Chronic Kidney Disease
  1. Behavioral and Psychiatric Disorders in Children with Disabilities
    Adelaide Robb

    Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders Among Children with Developmental Disabilities of Specific Etiologies
    Causes of Psychiatric Disorders in Developmental Disabilities
    Psychiatric Disorders of Childhood and Adolescence
IV. Interventions, Families, and Outcomes
  1. Early Intervention
    Toby Long

    Principles of Early Intervention
    Research Support for the Value of Early Intervention
    Components of Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act: The Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities Program
    Status of Early Intervention Services
    Future Considerations
  1. Special Education Services
    Elissa Batshaw Clair

    Eligibility for Special Education
    Special Education: A Description
    The Individualized Education Program
    Services Provided by Special Education Teachers
    The Role of the Special Education Teacher in the General Education Curriculum
    General Education Legislation Affecting Special Education Teachers
    The School-Parent Connection
  1. Behavior Principles, Assessment, and Therapy
    Michael F. Cataldo, SungWoo Kahng, Iser G. DeLeon, Brian K. Martens, Patrick C. Friman, and Marilyn Cataldo

    Operant Learning Principles and Practices
    Behavioral Assessment of Problem Behaviors
    Functional Assessment and Treatment Development
    Preference Assessment and Reinforcer
    Evaluation: From Basic Principle to Application
    Common Behavior Problems
    Severe Problem Behaviors
    Practical Strategies for the Classroom
    Behavioral Teaching Strategies
    Behavioral Instruction Programs
  1. Occupational and Physical Therapy
    Philippa Campbell

    Therapy Types and Purposes
    Intervention Frameworks Used by Physical and Occupational Therapists
    Team Structures and Therapist Roles
    Features of Pediatric Therapy Services and the Role of Therapists
    Intervention Strategies
    Evidence-Based Intervention
  1. Physical Activity, Exercise, and Sports
    Donna Bernhardt Bainbridge and James Gleason

    Health Risks of Children with Disabilities Related to a Lack of Physical Activity
    Considerations for Specific Disabilities
    Community Programs
    Policies Affecting Participation in Physical Activity
    Choice and Preparation for Physical Activity, Exercise, or Sports
    Injury Risk in Children
  1. Oral Health Care
    H. Barry Waldman, Steven P. Perlman, and George Acs

    Eruption of Teeth
    Problems Affecting Development of Teeth
    Contributing Factors to Oral Conditions of Individuals with Disabilities
    Oral Diseases
    Prevention of Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease
    Providing Dental and Orthodontic Treatment
    Special Issues Regarding Dental Care for Children with Specific Developmental Disabilities
    The Challenge of Providing Dental Services to Individuals with Disabilities
  1. Assistive Technology
    Larry W. Desch

    Definitions and Overview
    Technology for Medical Assistance
    Assistive Technology for Disabilities-Principles and Examples
    Assessment for Assistive Technology
    Effects of Assistive Technology on the Family and Community
  1. Caring and Coping: Helping the Family of a Child with a Disability
    Michaela L. Zajicek-Farber

    Understanding Family Systems
    How Families Cope with the Diagnosis
    Long-Term Effects on the Parents
    Effects on Siblings
    Effects on the Extended Family
    Effects on the Child with a Disability
    Principles of Family-Centered Care: Role of the Professional
    The Role of Society and Community
  1. Complementary and Alternative Therapies
    Michelle H. Zimmer

    Evidence of Treatment Efficacy
    Approaches to Advising Families About Complementary and Alternative Medicine
  1. Ethical Considerations
    Kruti Acharya, Michelle Huckaby Lewis, and Peter J. Smith

    Basic Ethical Principles
    The Relationship Between Law and Ethics
    Ethical Dilemmas
    Institutional Ethics Committees
    Protection of Human Subjects in Research
  1. Future Expectations: Transition from Adolescence to Adulthood
    Nienke P. Dosa, Patience H. White, and Vincent Schuyler

    General Principles of Transition
    Moving Toward Independence: Self-Determination
    Moving from School to Work
    Moving from Home into the Community
    Moving from Pediatric- to Adult-Oriented Health Care
  1. Health Care Delivery Systems and Financing Issues
    Angelo P. Giardino and Renee M. Turch

    The Concept of a Medical Home
    Importance of Coordination of Care
    Changes in Financing Health Care for CYSHCN
    Looking Toward the Future

Appendix A: Glossary
Arlene Gendron

Appendix B: Syndromes and Inborn Errors of Metabolism
Kara L. Simpson

Appendix C: Commonly Used Medications
Michelle L. Bestic

Appendix D: Childhood Disabilities Resources, Services, and Organizations